Odds and ends

1.  Over at Econlog I have a post responding to Arnold Kling.

2.  Tyler Cowen has a new post discussing the ideas of Kevin Erdmann.  In my view Kevin is one of the most underrated thinkers in economics.  He’s done a long series of posts on real estate, as well as related issues such as inequality.  I differ with him on the natural rate, but only for the relatively trivial reason that I define the term differently than he does.

3.  Joseph Stiglitz recently criticized Paul Krugman’s claim that our stagnation was due to an inability to cut interest rates far below zero.  Here’s why Stiglitz think’s Krugman is wrong:

The real problem is people don’t have income, and when they don’t have income they don’t spend.

Well thanks for clearing that up! And the reason my car is going too slowly is not that I am not pushing hard enough on the gas pedal, it’s that the wheels are not rotating fast enough.  I would have loved to see Krugman’s reaction, as well as his reaction to Ralph Nader’s recent advocacy of tighter money.  I’m guessing Krugman won’t treat them with the same contempt that he views the gold bugs and inflation truthers.

4.  Timothy Lee has a great article on Bitcoin:

Bitcoin hasn’t received the kind of hype in 2015 that it has in previous years. But outside the spotlight, the Bitcoin economy has continued to grow slowly but steadily. And in the last few weeks, the value of Bitcoin has soared. One bitcoin cost $236 at the beginning of October. Now, five weeks later, it costs $426.

No one is sure why the currency has had such a dramatic surge. But it’s at least partly a sign of growing investor confidence in the growth of the underlying Bitcoin economy. Here are five charts that show Bitcoin’s progress.

He has lots of evidence that Bitcoin is making big inroads into the real economy; it’s not longer just a speculative asset. Of course lots of people told us it was a bubble a few years back, even with the price was 1/10th its current level.  I’d guess its price will continue to be wildly unstable, but I also suspect that it’s not just a flash in the pan.  Bitcoin is another example of why bubble theories are useless.  Suppose you had refrained from investing in Bitcoin based on earlier claims that it was overvalued at $30.  You would have missed out on huge potential gains.  For every bubble prediction that comes true, there is one that comes false.  Asset prices are a random walk, and bubble theories add nothing useful to that fact. When you have an asset that’s value is easy to estimate, like 3-month T-bills, its value will be pretty stable.  It’s harder to estimate the value of GE stock, so its value will be less stable.  And it’s really hard to estimate the value of a biotech start-up, or Bitcoin, so their value will be very unstable.  There will be dramatic ups and downs that look like bubbles, but that will be a cognitive illusion.

5.  Tyler also discusses a new book by Garett Jones, called Hive Mind: How Your Nation’s IQ Matters So Much More Than Your Own.  It’s one of the best non-fiction books I’ve read in quite a while (although admittedly I’m a slow reader, so I don’t read nearly as much as Tyler.)  It’s no surprise that people with IQs of 105 make more money, on average, than people with IQs of 90.  But the difference is modest.  On the other hand, countries with average IQs of 105 are dramatically richer, on average, than countries with average IQs of 90.  Of course there are lots of possible reasons for that (and exceptions to the rule), and Garett discusses a lot of interesting theories, some of which are based on behavioral economics research.  The hypothesis that interested me the most is that higher IQ people (and countries) tended to be thiftier. Interestingly, the highest IQ countries tend to be in East Asia, and the smartest country in Europe is Switzerland. The book also has lots of interesting discussion of ways to boost IQ, the Flynn effect, etc., but I’m going to skip over the difficult problem of correlation/causation, and think for a moment about how Garett’s work interacts with Thomas Piketty.

Let’s suppose Switzerland and Singapore save more because their people have high IQs.  According to Piketty, they’ll gradually get richer and richer, piling up huge current account surpluses.  Now what should a good progressive think of that fact?  If you are an “internationalist progressive”, who like all utilitarians believes the massive spending on social welfare in Western Europe should be redirected to the poor of Africa and Asia, then you’d be horrified by those two economic models, even though the conservative economic policies of Switzerland and Singapore benefited their own citizens.  If you were a “nationalistic progressive”, which of course most are, you’d favor the European welfare state, and controls on immigration, because solidarity with the poor of your own country is more important than eliminating extreme poverty in the 3rd world.  Then you might even like the Singapore/Swiss approach.  It certainly seems to have won out in northern Europe.

6.  It’s interesting to contrast Garett Jones’ book with another very interesting book that I recently read, The Moral Foundation of Economic Behavior, by David Rose.  Garett says that higher IQ leads to higher levels of trust, which is important for economic development.  David Rose also says trust is central to economic success, but focuses on cultural differences. He suggests that “guilt cultures” such as the West, have an advantage over “shame cultures” such as East Asia. That’s because people in a guilt-based society will be reluctant to cheat, even if they can get away with it.  (Obviously I’m oversimplifying the story here, he’s well aware that lots of individual people cheat in all societies, even Denmark.) The book has many other interesting ideas.  Conservatives would especially like David’s book.

7.  Timothy Lee also has a nice post on monetary policy:

The broader problem with Nader and Carson’s arguments is that the Fed doesn’t actually have that much control over interest rates.

Think of a guy driving along a winding mountain road. In one sense, he has total control over where the car goes. If he turns the steering wheel to the right, the car goes right. But that doesn’t mean he can drive the car wherever he wants. If he steers too far to the right, he’ll go through the guardrail and off the cliff. If he steers too far to the left, he’ll run into the mountain on the other side of the road.

The Fed is in a similar situation. It’s trying to steer a course between the twin evils of inflation and recession. If it keeps rates too low for too long, the economy will start to overheat, and inflation will get out of control. If the Fed raises rates too quickly, it’ll tip the economy back into recession. So it’s true that at any particular instant, the Fed can make interest rates go up and down. But the Fed doesn’t have that much leeway to raise rates if it wants to avoid hurtling over the cliff and into a big recession.

The European Central Bank did exactly that when it raised interest rates prematurely in 2011. That proved to be a huge mistake, because it tipped the eurozone economy into a double-dip recession.

Think of someone driving from Munich to Milan.  Who determines the path of the car over the Alps?  Is it the driver, or the Swiss engineer who designed the road?  Both have some influence, but the one that directly controls the steering actually has the least influence.  Ditto for the effects of the Fed and NGDP on interest rates.  Most people don’t understand that point.

8.  Lars Christensen points to a recent paper by Ryan Murphy and Taylor Leland Smith, which shows that NGDP shortfalls lead to statist policies.  I’ve always believed that to be true, but mostly based on anecdotes like the New Deal, Obama, and the Argentine government’s shift toward statism after 2002.  Now we have an empirical study, which shows how inflation hawks like Bob Murphy are inadvertently helping socialists such as Bernie Sanders.  And the results hold even if you exclude the Great Depression and the Great Recession.

9.  And last but not least, Paul Krugman hints at sinister policies that are dramatically improving the health of America’s Hispanic population, while slightly worsening the health of whites:

There’s a lot to be said, or at any rate suggested, about the politics of this disaster. But I’ll come back to that some other time. For now, the thing to understand, to say it again, is that something terrible is happening to our country “” and it’s not about Those People, it’s about the white majority.

I can’t wait to see Krugman reveal more details of the “politics” behind this outcome.  Let me guess, the GOP will come out looking bad.  (Seriously though, it is a really interesting graph, and not just because of white Americans, but also the huge gaps between say France and Sweden/Australia.  They are not what I expected, and I have no idea what causes them.)



43 Responses to “Odds and ends”

  1. Gravatar of Patrick R. Sullivan Patrick R. Sullivan
    4. November 2015 at 09:25

    Kevin Erdman has a very timely post, that is directly on point to what happened in Seattle last night (as I pointed out in his comments section). Think, ‘Ms Sawant and the Vicious Cycle’


    The blue state/red state divide is largely about closed access vs. open access. Closed access cities and states are experiencing rising costs and rising poverty, and this is leading to a massive migration of poor households from blue states to red states to escape those policies. I think the different experiences of people within these two parts of the country explain much of the trends we see in politics.

    Take immigration. As I have been pointing out, in the open access part of the country, we live in a classical economics world. If a city has opportunities, it leads to population inflows which cause incomes to moderate back toward equilibrium with the rest of the country. Housing supply pretty efficiently rises in these cities to increase housing without skyrocketing costs (unless there are extreme temporary fluctuations such as in the North Dakota oil fields). In closed access cities, opportunity leads to a bidding war for housing, so that incomes can remain elevated, but costs become elevated also.

    The differences between these two types of cities are stark. You can tell what type of city it is just by looking through the newspaper. In open access cities, people complain that poor people are moving in and taking away jobs, pushing down wages. In closed access cities, people complain that rich people are moving in and bidding up rents.

    Which leads voters in those ‘closed access cities’ to vote for more of the same things that caused their problems in the first place. Kshama Sawant–Phd North Carolina State!–the Bernie Sanders of Seattle, just got re-elected to the City Council. Her platform calls for…rent control!

  2. Gravatar of Patrick R. Sullivan Patrick R. Sullivan
    4. November 2015 at 09:32

    Oh, btw, MIT’s Simon Johnson lives in a mythological world;


    ‘Some of the greatest threats in 2008 were posed by banks – such as Citigroup – built on the premise that integrating commercial and investment banking would bring stability and better service. Sandy Weill, the primary architect of the modern Citigroup, regrets that construction – and regrets lobbying for the repeal of Glass-Steagall. (As James Kwak and I argued in our book 13 Bankers, what really mattered was the decades-long bipartisan process of deregulation, for which the end of Glass-Steagall was a prominent symbol.)’

    Wonder what Simon says to himself every time he walks into a bank and sees all those little plaques that state that the deposits in the institution are insured by the FDIC?

  3. Gravatar of Jared Jared
    4. November 2015 at 09:58

    Scott, I don’t see Stiglitz’ comment as tautological as you do. In fact, I see it as implying the falseness of your expectations theory. Don’t you claim that people will spend when they expect future prices to be higher (even if their current income is flat)? Stiglitz is denying this. I think he would maintain that even if people expect future price increases, they’re more focused on building cash savings and paying down debt. So incomes need to rise before we see any increase in private spending. And the only way that is possible is if those increased incomes are financed by foreign spending (not going to happen) or gov’t spending.

  4. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    4. November 2015 at 11:26

    Patrick, Good point. In his memoir, Bernanke points out that the repeal of G-S helped prevent the crisis from being even worse, by allowing commercial banks to merge with failing investment banks.

    Jared, That’s simply wrong, according to any plausible model, Keynesian, monetarist, whatever. GDI = GDP is a tautology. It makes no sense to talk about higher spending causing higher incomes, or vice versa. They are determined jointly, regardless of whether you use the Keynesian cross or MV=PY. Lower rates (assuming liquidity effect, as Krugman does) lead to both higher spending and higher income.

    But what’s worst about Stiglitz’s statement is that he doesn’t seem to realize that easy money causes higher incomes. His statement makes no sense as a criticism of Krugman, none at all. He simply assumes Krugman is wrong. But where is the argument? The gap between Stiglitz’s vision of macro and Krugman’s vision is 10 times greater than the gap between me and Krugman.

    You said:

    “And the only way that is possible is if those increased incomes are financed by foreign spending (not going to happen) or gov’t spending.”

    You’d be better off working through the logic of your position with a closed economy (and no government) model first—it’s a good way to avoid these sorts of mistakes.

    And finally, I don’t understand your argument about expectations. If people expect higher prices in the future, then prices will go up immediately. Think of the housing market, for instance. If wages are sticky, then higher housing prices leads to more home construction.

  5. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    4. November 2015 at 11:48

    “But what’s worst about Stiglitz’s statement is that he doesn’t seem to realize that easy money causes higher incomes.”

    I don’t think Stiglitz would put it this way. I think he would say something along the lines of “rich people benefit a lot more from easy money than poor people”. I bet Krugman would agree with him.

    I don’t like Stiglitz as a person. But in this case I have to give him credit for expressing his ideas in a really simple, intuitive way.

  6. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    4. November 2015 at 11:54

    “They are not what I expected, and I have no idea what causes them.”

    It might have to do something with war and veterans.

  7. Gravatar of William William
    4. November 2015 at 12:24

    I don’t quite understand why Krugman is trying to pass off the Deaton and Case paper as indicating that “something terrible is happening to white American society.” The increased mortality rate only holds for middle aged white people; to quote NYT, “the death rate for middle-aged blacks and Hispanics continued to decline during the same period, as did death rates for younger and older people of all races and ethnic groups.

    It seems to be specific to that generation of white people.

  8. Gravatar of Jared Jared
    4. November 2015 at 12:57

    I agree that GDI=GDP, and I’m sure Stiglitz does too. But I think he’s focusing on domestic private spending (C+I) from within total GDP. Since GDI=C+I + G + NX, his point is that you can’t increase C+I by much, under current conditions, by messing around with interest rates. You’ll have to increase GDI through the other sectors before C+I can rise.

    You said: “If people expect higher prices in the future, then prices will go up immediately.” I just don’t see this as an obvious truth. Everywhere I looked during 2010-2013, people were predicting inflation, but they weren’t spending. Isn’t it possible that we can expect higher prices in the future, but we’re so risk averse we’d rather just increase our cash savings and pay down debt? And once our balance sheets are improved, we no longer expect future inflation because we haven’t seen it materialize. Isn’t this what’s actually happening?

  9. Gravatar of Anonymoose Anonymoose
    4. November 2015 at 15:31


    Some commentators were predicting inflation during that period, but financial markets (e.g. the bond market) weren’t.

  10. Gravatar of benjamin cole benjamin cole
    4. November 2015 at 15:35

    #8: Dang right. This is what I have been saying. If you want voters to like free enterprise, the goal should be “labor shortages”.

    Or, we can suffocate the economy with tight money, drive people out of the labor force, and wonder why people distrust the capitalist system.

  11. Gravatar of Dan W. Dan W.
    4. November 2015 at 16:12


    Can I infer from your comment that “open borders” policies are “statist”. For such polices flood a nation with cheap labor, force down wages, push people out of the labor force and cause them to distrust the capitalist system.

    FWIW, I agree with you that bad economic policies and regulations cause people to distrust capitalism. Problem is so few people agree on what good polices are!

  12. Gravatar of JG JG
    4. November 2015 at 16:27

    “For every bubble prediction that comes true, there is one that comes false.”

    More like: For every bubble prediction that comes true, there is one hundred that come false.

  13. Gravatar of E. Harding E. Harding
    4. November 2015 at 17:16

    “and the smartest country in Europe is Switzerland.”

    -Not much of a difference between Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Lichtenstein.

    “and the Argentine government’s shift toward statism after 2002.”

    -Didn’t statism in Argentina substantially increase during the Great Depression, and continue unabated through Argentina’s various great inflations? Greece, though, is another matter, and its descent into statism was not correlated with a substantial NGDP shock.

    “inflation hawks like Bob Murphy are inadvertently helping socialists such as Bernie Sanders.”

    -Sounds about right. If the Fed decided to go all-in on 10% inflation after 2008 without regard to the consequences, nobody would have been talking about fiscal or monetary stimulus. Rather, the conversation would have been focused on supply-side reforms.

    “As a number of people have pointed out, the closest parallel to America’s rising death rates “” driven by poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases “” is the collapse in Russian life expectancy after the fall of Communism.”

    -No, it’s the stagnation in Russian life expectancy before the fall of Communism. And I’m no fan of the Russian 1990s. They were way worse than anything America has experienced, except maybe the Great Depression.

  14. Gravatar of Major.Freedom Major.Freedom
    4. November 2015 at 17:18

    “When you have an asset that’s value is easy to estimate, like 3-month T-bills, its value will be pretty stable. It’s harder to estimate the value of GE stock, so its value will be less stable. And it’s really hard to estimate the value of a biotech start-up, or Bitcoin, so their value will be very unstable. There will be dramatic ups and downs that look like bubbles, but that will be a cognitive illusion.”

    This is totally off the wall absurdly false, and you contradict yourself to boot.

    You are ironically enough implying there is such thing as a “true”, or “fundamental” value of a good or asset, apart from its empirical price. That belief implies the existence of bubbles when the price goes above that “hard to estimate” price! Hello!

    But besides that, the mere existence of volatility in the price of an asset does NOT imply that people are having difficulty “estimating” its value. The price you are willing to pay says nothing about the price I am willing to pay. And, even more importantly, the price you are willing to pay today does not have to be anywhere close to the price you are willing to pay next year. Suppose you got summoned to court for a crime you didn’t commit, and you need cash quick. Well, you could very well decide to sell your Bitcoins for a lower price you paid when you first bought them. This does not mean you had difficulty estimating any “true” value of Bitcoins, it means your circumstances have changed.

    None of these circumstances for everyone taken together “offsets” or “balances out” for “well estimated” prices.

    The reason why we see some prices as more stable than others has nothing to do with the level of difficulty in estimating its “true” value. A true value is not a stable value. A true value is the value that reflects actual individual preferences, which oftentimes you have difficulty in understanding is hampered by violence and coercion, most especially by governments.

    Bitcoins are fluctuating in price not because people don’t know its “true” value. They are fluctuating in price because of large scale changes in the valuation of BOTH Bitcoins AND dollars, AND the changes in political and economic circumstances which Bitcoins are very involved. The people who sold Bitcoins last year were willing to sell at a much lower price than people this year are willing to sell. T-bill prices are not fluctuating because the Fed is purposefully holding interest rates STABLE and LOW, which of course requires wild fluctuations in money, which could very well be a big factor in the prices of Bitcoins.

    The most wildly fluctuating prices are to a large degree the other side of the coin in the Fed forcing stability elsewhere. Stability by government force is a mind and body killer. Where the government forces stability by aggression, it always has the “collateral damage” of massive volatility elsewhere. Look at the skyrocketing prices of stocks. That is a consequence of the Fed forcing stability elsewhere.

    Forcing NGDP by government aggression? That will cause massive instability elsewhere.

    Be warned socialist fools!

  15. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    4. November 2015 at 17:22

    Christian, You said:

    “I don’t think Stiglitz would put it this way. I think he would say something along the lines of “rich people benefit a lot more from easy money than poor people”. I bet Krugman would agree with him.
    I don’t like Stiglitz as a person. But in this case I have to give him credit for expressing his ideas in a really simple, intuitive way.”

    No, that’s not at all what he’s saying. If I thought that’s what he was saying my opinion of him would be far lower. In that case I would have to believe he doesn’t even know how to express his opinions. But I do believe he knows how to express his opinions, I just don’t agree with them. And Krugman certainly doesn’t agree with Stiglitz’s views, but since they are both on the left, I doubt Krugman will openly mock those views. But privately . . .

    You said:

    “It might have to do something with war and veterans.”

    I’m afraid not, this age group (45-55) did not fight in wars, with a tiny number of exceptions.

    William, I eagerly await Krugman’s explanation.

    Jared, You said:

    “Since GDI=C+I + G + NX, his point is that you can’t increase C+I by much, under current conditions, by messing around with interest rates. You’ll have to increase GDI through the other sectors before C+I can rise.”

    Then he doesn’t understand macro101. A highly expansionary monetary policy will boost NGDP, unless at the zero bound. Even without G and NX. It’s not even debatable. Zimbabwe?

    You said:

    “Everywhere I looked during 2010-2013, people were predicting inflation, but they weren’t spending.”

    No, the TIPS spreads showed most people were not expecting inflation. If the TIPS spreads had been 4% or 5%, then AD would have been soaring.

  16. Gravatar of Major.Freedom Major.Freedom
    4. November 2015 at 17:27

    You calling me a theist? That I am religious? Bah!

    I do not believe in the following gods:

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    balto slavic: (125)
    Aba-khatun, Aigiarm, Ajysyt, Alkonost, Almoshi, Altan-Telgey, Ama, Anapel, As-ava, Ausaitis, Austeja, Ayt’ar, Baba Yaga (Jezi Baba), Belobog (Belun), Boldogasszony, Breksta, Bugady Musun, Chernobog (Crnobog, Czarnobog, Czerneboch, Cernobog), Cinei-new, Colleda (Koliada), Cuvto-ava, Dali, Darzu-mate, Dazhbog, Debena, Devana, Diiwica (Dilwica), Doda (Dodola), Dolya, Dragoni, Dugnai, Dunne Enin, Edji, Elena, Erce, Etugen, Falvara, The Fates, The Fatit, Gabija, Ganiklis, Giltine, Hotogov Mailgan, Hov-ava, Iarila, Isten, Ja-neb’a, Jedza, Joda-mate, Kaldas, Kaltes, Keretkun, Khadau, Khursun (Khors), Kostrubonko, Kovas, Krumine, Kupala, Kupalo, Laima, Leshy, Marina, Marzana, Matergabiae, Mat Syra Zemlya, Medeine, Menu (Menulis), Mir-Susne-Khum, Myesyats, Nastasija, (Russia) Goddess of sleep., Nelaima, Norov, Numi-Tarem, Nyia, Ora, Ot, Patollo, Patrimpas, Pereplut, Perkuno, Perun, Pikuolis, Pilnytis, Piluitus, Potrimpo, Puskaitis, Rod, Rugevit, Rultennin, Rusalki, Sakhadai-Noin, Saule, Semargl, Stribog, Sudjaje, Svantovit (Svantevit, Svitovyd), Svarazic (Svarozic, Svarogich), Tengri, Tairgin, Triglav, Ulgen (Ulgan, lgn), Veles (Volos), Vesna, Xatel-Ekwa, Xoli-Kaltes, Yamm, Yarilo, Yarovit, Ynakhsyt, Zaria, Zeme mate, Zemyna, Ziva (Siva), Zizilia, Zonget, Zorya, Zvoruna, Zvezda Dennitsa, Zywie

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    Japan (53):
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    India (43)
    Agni, Ammavaru, Asuras, Banka-Mundi, Brihaspati, Budhi Pallien, Candi, Challalamma, Chinnintamma, Devas, Dyaush, Gauri-Sankar, Grhadevi, Gujeswari, Indra, Kali, Lohasur Devi, Mayavel, Mitra, Prajapati, Puchan, Purandhi, Rakshas, Rudrani, Rumina, Samundra, Sarasvati, Savitar, Siva (Shiva), Soma, Sura, Surabhi, Tulsi, Ushas, Vata, Visvamitra, Vivasvat, Vritra, Waghai Devi, Yaparamma, Yayu, Zumiang Nui, Diti

    Other Asian: (31)
    Dewi Shri, Po Yan Dari, Shuzanghu, Antaboga, Yakushi Nyorai, Mulhalmoni, Tankun, Yondung Halmoni, Aryong Jong, Quan Yin , Tengri, Uminai-gami, Kamado-No-Kami, Kunitokotatchi, Giri Devi, Dewi Nawang Sasih, Brag-srin-mo, Samanta-Bhadra, Sangs-rgyas-mkh, Sengdroma, Sgeg-mo-ma, Tho-og, Ui Tango, Yum-chen-mo, Zas-ster-ma-dmar-mo, Chandra, Dyaus, Ratri, Rodasi, Vayu, Au-Co

    African: 250 Gods, Demigods and First Men
    Abassi , Abuk , Adu Ogyinae , Ag, Agwe , Aida Wedo , Ajalamo, Aje, Ajok, Akonadi, Akongo, Akuj, Amma, Anansi, Asase Yaa, Ashiakle, Atai , Ayaba, Aziri, Baatsi, Bayanni, Bele Alua, Bomo rambi, Bosumabla, Buk, Buku, Bumba, Bunzi, Buruku, Cagn, Candit, Cghene, Coti, Damballah-Wedo, Dan, Deng, Domfe, Dongo, Edinkira, Ef�, Egungun-oya, Eka Abassi, Elephant Girl Mbombe, Emayian, Enekpe, En-Kai, Eseasar, Eshu, Esu, Fa, Faran, Faro, Fatouma, Fidi Mukullu, Fon, Gleti, Gonzuole, G, Gua, Gulu, Gunab, Hammadi, Hbiesso, Iku, Ilankaka, Imana, Iruwa, Isaywa, Juok, Kazooba, Khakaba, Khonvum, Kibuka, Kintu, Leb, Leza, Libanza, Lituolone, Loko, Marwe, Massim Biambe, Mawu-Lisa (Leza), Mboze, Mebeli, Minepa, Moombi, Mukameiguru, Mukasa, Muluku, Mulungu, Mwambu, Nai, Nambi, Nana Buluku, Nanan-Bouclou, Nenaunir, Ng Ai, Nyaliep, Nyamb, Nyankopon, Nyasaye, Nzame, Oboto, Obumo, Odudua-Orishala, Ogun, Olokun, Olorun, Orisha Nla, Orunmila, Osanyin, Oshe, Osun, Oya, Phebele, Pokot-Suk, Ralubumbha, Rugaba, Ruhanga, Ryangombe, Sagbata, Shagpona, Shango, Sopona, Tano, Thixo, Tilo, Tokoloshi, Tsui, Tsui’goab, Umvelinqangi, Unkulunkulu, Utixo, Wak, Wamara, Wantu Su, Wele, Were, Woto, Xevioso, Yangombi, Yemonja, Ymoa, Ymoja, Yoruba, Zambi, Zanahary , Zinkibaru,

    Australian: 93 Gods, Goddesses and Places in the Dreamtime
    Alinga, Anjea, Apunga, Arahuta, Ariki, Arohirohi, Bamapana, Banaitja, Bara, Barraiya, Biame, Bila, Boaliri, Bobbi-bobbi, Bunbulama, Bunjil, Cunnembeille, Daramulum, Dilga, Djanggawul Sisters, Eingana, Erathipa, Gidja , Gnowee, Haumia, Hine Titama, Ingridi, Julana, Julunggul, Junkgowa, Karora, Kunapipi-Kalwadi-Kadjara, Lia, Madalait, Makara, Nabudi, Palpinkalare, Papa, Rangi, Rongo, Tane, Tangaroa, Tawhiri-ma-tea, Tomituka, Tu, Ungamilia, Walo, Waramurungundi, Wati Kutjarra, Wawalag Sisters, Wuluwaid, Wuragag, Wuriupranili, Wurrunna, Yhi,

    Buddhism: 10 Gods and Relatives of God
    Aizen-Myoo, Ajima,Dai-itoku-Myoo, Fudo-Myoo, Gozanze-Myoo, Gundari-Myoo, Hariti, Kongo-Myoo, Kujaku-Myoo, Ni-O,

    Carribean: 62 Gods, Monsters and Vodun Spirits
    Agaman Nibo , Agwe, Agweta, Ah Uaynih, Aida Wedo , Atabei , Ayida , Ayizan, Azacca, Baron Samedi, Ulrich, Ellegua, Ogun, Ochosi, Chango, Itaba, Amelia, Christalline, Clairm, Clairmezin, Coatrischie, Damballah , Emanjah, Erzuli, Erzulie, Ezili, Ghede, Guabancex, Guabonito, Guamaonocon, Imanje, Karous, Laloue-diji, Legba, Loa, Loco, Maitresse Amelia , Mapiangueh, Marie-aime, Marinette, Mombu, Marassa, Nana Buruku, Oba, Obtala, Ochu, Ochumare, Oddudua, Ogoun, Olokum, Olosa, Oshun, Oya, Philomena, Sir�ne, The Diablesse, Itaba, Tsilah, Ursule, Vierge, Yemaya , Zaka,

    Celtic: 166 Gods, Goddesses, Divine Kings and Pagan Saints
    Abarta, Abna, Abnoba, Aine, Airetech,Akonadi, Amaethon, Ameathon, An Cailleach, Andraste, Antenociticus, Aranrhod, Arawn, Arianrod, Artio, Badb,Balor, Banbha, Becuma, Belatucadros, Belatu-Cadros, Belenus, Beli,Belimawr, Belinus, Bendigeidfran, Bile, Blathnat, Blodeuwedd, Boann, Bodus,Bormanus, Borvo, Bran, Branwen, Bres, Brigid, Brigit, Caridwen, Carpantus,Cathbadh, Cecht, Cernach, Cernunnos, Cliodna, Cocidius, Conchobar, Condatis, Cormac,Coronus,Cosunea, Coventina, Crarus,Creidhne, Creirwy, Cu Chulainn, Cu roi, Cuda, Cuill,Cyhiraeth,Dagda, Damona, Dana, Danu, D’Aulnoy,Dea Artio, Deirdre , Dewi, Dian, Diancecht, Dis Pater, Donn, Dwyn, Dylan, Dywel,Efnisien, Elatha, Epona, Eriu, Esos, Esus, Eurymedon,Fedelma, Fergus, Finn, Fodla, Goewyn, Gog, Goibhniu, Govannon , Grainne, Greine,Gwydion, Gwynn ap Nudd, Herne, Hu’Gadarn, Keltoi,Keridwen, Kernunnos,Ler, Lir, Lleu Llaw Gyffes, Lludd, Llyr, Llywy, Luchta, Lug, Lugh,Lugus, Mabinogion,Mabon, Mac Da Tho, Macha, Magog, Manannan, Manawydan, Maponos, Math, Math Ap Mathonwy, Medb, Moccos,Modron, Mogons, Morrig, Morrigan, Nabon,Nantosuelta, Naoise, Nechtan, Nedoledius,Nehalennia, Nemhain, Net,Nisien, Nodens, Noisi, Nuada, Nwywre,Oengus, Ogma, Ogmios, Oisin, Pach,Partholon, Penard Dun, Pryderi, Pwyll, Rhiannon, Rosmerta, Samhain, Segidaiacus, Sirona, Sucellus, Sulis, Taliesin, Taranis, Teutates, The Horned One,The Hunt, Treveni,Tyne, Urien, Ursula of the Silver Host, Vellaunus, Vitiris, White Lady,

    Egyptian: 85 Gods, Gods Incarnate and Personified Divine Forces:
    Amaunet, Amen, Amon, Amun, Anat, Anqet, Antaios, Anubis, Anuket, Apep, Apis, Astarte, Aten, Aton, Atum, Bastet, Bat, Buto, Duamutef, Duamutef, Hapi, Har-pa-khered, Hathor, Hauhet, Heket, Horus, Huh, Imset, Isis, Kauket, Kebechsenef, Khensu, Khepri, Khnemu, Khnum, Khonsu, Kuk, Maahes, Ma’at, Mehen, Meretseger, Min, Mnewer, Mut, Naunet, Nefertem, Neith, Nekhbet, Nephthys, Nun, Nut, Osiris, Ptah, Ra , Re, Renenet, Sakhmet, Satet, Seb, Seker, Sekhmet, Serapis, Serket, Set, Seth, Shai, Shu, Shu, Sia, Sobek, Sokar, Tefnut, Tem, Thoth,

    Hellenes (Greek) Tradition (540 Gods, Demigods, Divine Bastards)
    Acidalia, Aello, Aesculapius, Agathe, Agdistis, Ageleia, Aglauros, Agne, Agoraia, Agreia, Agreie, Agreiphontes, Agreus, Agrios, Agrotera, Aguieus, Aidoneus, Aigiokhos, Aigletes, Aigobolos, Ainia,Ainippe, Aithuia , Akesios, Akraia, Aktaios, Alalkomene, Alasiotas, Alcibie, Alcinoe, Alcippe, Alcis,Alea, Alexikakos, Aligena, Aliterios, Alkaia, Amaltheia, Ambidexter, Ambologera, Amynomene,Anaduomene, Anaea, Anax, Anaxilea, Androdameia,Andromache, Andromeda, Androphonos, Anosia, Antandre,Antania, Antheus, Anthroporraistes, Antianara, Antianeira, Antibrote, Antimache, Antimachos, Antiope,Antiopeia, Aoide, Apatouria, Aphneius, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apotropaios, Areia, Areia, Areion, Areopagite, Ares, Areto, Areximacha,Argus, Aridnus,Aristaios, Aristomache, Arkhegetes, Arktos, Arretos, Arsenothelys, Artemis, Asclepius, Asklepios, Aspheleios, Asteria, Astraeos , Athene, Auxites, Avaris, Axios, Axios Tauros,Bakcheios, Bakchos, Basileus, Basilis, Bassareus, Bauros, Boophis, Boreas , Botryophoros, Boukeros, Boulaia, Boulaios, Bremusa,Bromios, Byblis,Bythios, Caliope, Cedreatis, Celaneo, centaur, Cerberus, Charidotes, Charybdis, Chimera, Chloe, Chloris , Choreutes, Choroplekes, Chthonios, Clete, Clio, clotho,Clyemne, cockatrice, Crataeis, Custos, Cybebe, Cybele, Cyclops, Daphnaia, Daphnephoros, Deianeira, Deinomache, Delia, Delios, Delphic, Delphinios, Demeter, Dendrites, Derimacheia,Derinoe, Despoina, Dikerotes, Dimeter, Dimorphos, Dindymene, Dioktoros, Dionysos, Discordia, Dissotokos, Dithyrambos, Doris, Dryope,Echephyle,Echidna, Eiraphiotes, Ekstatophoros, Eleemon, Eleuthereus, Eleutherios, Ennosigaios, Enodia, Enodios, Enoplios, Enorches, Enualios, Eos , Epaine, Epidotes, Epikourios, Epipontia, Epitragidia, Epitumbidia, Erato, Ergane, Eribromios, Erigdoupos, Erinus, Eriobea, Eriounios, Eriphos, Eris, Eros,Euanthes, Euaster, Eubouleus, Euboulos, Euios, Eukhaitos, Eukleia, Eukles, Eumache, Eunemos, Euplois, Euros , Eurybe,Euryleia, Euterpe, Fates,Fortuna, Gaia, Gaieokhos, Galea, Gamelia, Gamelios, Gamostolos, Genetor, Genetullis, Geryon, Gethosynos, giants, Gigantophonos, Glaukopis, Gorgons, Gorgopis, Graiae, griffin, Gynaikothoinas, Gynnis, Hagisilaos, Hagnos, Haides, Harmothoe, harpy, Hegemone, Hegemonios, Hekate, Hekatos, Helios, Hellotis, Hephaistia, Hephaistos, Hera, Heraios, Herakles, Herkeios, Hermes, Heros Theos, Hersos, Hestia, Heteira, Hiksios, Hipp, Hippia, Hippios, Hippoi Athanatoi, Hippolyte, Hippolyte II, Hippomache,Hippothoe, Horkos, Hugieia, Hupatos, Hydra, Hypate, Hyperborean, Hypsipyle, Hypsistos, Iakchos, Iatros, Idaia, Invictus, Iphito,Ismenios, Ismenus,Itonia, Kabeiria, Kabeiroi, Kakia, Kallinikos, Kallipugos, Kallisti, Kappotas, Karneios, Karpophoros, Karytis, Kataibates, Katakhthonios, Kathatsios, Keladeine, Keraunos, Kerykes, Khalinitis, Khalkioikos, Kharmon, Khera, Khloe, Khlori,Khloris,Khruse, Khthonia, Khthonios, Kidaria, Kissobryos, Kissokomes, Kissos, Kitharodos, Kleidouchos, Kleoptoleme, Klymenos, Kore, Koruthalia, Korymbophoros, Kourotrophos, Kranaia, Kranaios, Krataiis, Kreousa, Kretogenes, Kriophoros, Kronides, Kronos,Kryphios, Ktesios, Kubebe, Kupris, Kuprogenes, Kurotrophos, Kuthereia, Kybele, Kydoime,Kynthia, Kyrios, Ladon, Lakinia, Lamia, Lampter, Laodoke, Laphria, Lenaios, Leukatas, Leukatas, Leukolenos, Leukophruene, Liknites, Limenia, Limnaios, Limnatis, Logios, Lokhia, Lousia, Loxias, Lukaios, Lukeios, Lyaios, Lygodesma, Lykopis, Lyseus, Lysippe, Maimaktes, Mainomenos, Majestas, Makar, Maleatas, Manikos, Mantis, Marpe, Marpesia, Medusa, Megale, Meilikhios, Melaina, Melainis, Melanaigis, Melanippe,Melete, Melousa, Melpomene, Melqart, Meses, Mimnousa, Minotaur, Mneme, Molpadia,Monogenes, Morpho, Morychos, Musagates, Musagetes, Nebrodes, Nephelegereta, Nereus,Nete, Nike, Nikephoros, Nomios, Nomius, Notos , Nyktelios, Nyktipolos, Nympheuomene, Nysios, Oiketor, Okyale, Okypous, Olumpios, Omadios, Ombrios, Orithia,Orius,Ortheia, Orthos, Ourania, Ourios, Paelemona, Paian, Pais, Palaios, Pallas, Pan Megas, Panakhais, Pandemos, Pandrosos, Pantariste, Parthenos, PAsianax, Pasiphaessa, Pater, Pater, Patroos, Pegasus, Pelagia, Penthesilea, Perikionios, Persephone, Petraios, Phanes, Phanter, Phatria, Philios, Philippis, Philomeides, Phoebe, Phoebus, Phoenix, Phoibos, Phosphoros, Phratrios, Phutalmios, Physis, Pisto, Plouton, Polemusa,Poliakhos, Polias, Polieus, Polumetis, Polydektes, Polygethes, Polymnia, Polymorphos, Polyonomos, Porne, Poseidon, Potnia Khaos, Potnia Pheron, Promakhos, Pronoia, Propulaios, Propylaia, Proserpine, Prothoe, Protogonos, Prytaneia, Psychopompos, Puronia, Puthios, Pyrgomache, Python, Rhea, Sabazios, Salpinx, satyr, Saxanus, Scyleia,Scylla, sirens, Skeptouchos, Smintheus, Sophia, Sosipolis, Soter, Soteria, Sphinx, Staphylos, Sthenias, Sthenios, Strife, Summakhia, Sykites, Syzygia, Tallaios, Taureos, Taurokeros, Taurophagos, Tauropolos, Tauropon, Tecmessa, Teisipyte, Teleios, Telepyleia,Teletarches, Terpsichore, Thalestris, Thalia, The Dioskouroi, Theos, Theritas, Thermodosa, Thraso, Thyonidas, Thyrsophoros, Tmolene, Toxaris, Toxis, Toxophile,Trevia, Tricephalus, Trieterikos, Trigonos, Trismegestos, Tritogeneia, Tropaios, Trophonius,Tumborukhos, Tyche, Typhon, Urania, Valasca, Xanthippe, Xenios, Zagreus, Zathos, Zephryos , Zeus, Zeus Katakhthonios, Zoophoros

    Native American: 711 Gods, Heroes, and Anthropomorphized Facets of Nature
    Aakuluujjusi, Ab Kin zoc, Abaangui , Ababinili , Ac Yanto, Acan, Acat, Achiyalatopa , Acna, Acolmiztli, Acolnahuacatl, Acuecucyoticihuati, Adamisil Wedo, Adaox , Adekagagwaa , Adlet , Adlivun, Agloolik , Aguara , Ah Bolom Tzacab, Ah Cancum, Ah Chun Caan, Ah Chuy Kak, Ah Ciliz, Ah Cun Can, Ah Cuxtal, Ah hulneb, Ah Kin, Ah Kumix Uinicob, Ah Mun, Ah Muzencab, Ah Patnar Uinicob, Ah Peku, Ah Puch, Ah Tabai, Ah UincirDz’acab, Ah Uuc Ticab, Ah Wink-ir Masa, Ahau Chamahez, Ahau-Kin, Ahmakiq, Ahnt Alis Pok’, Ahnt Kai’, Aholi , Ahsonnutli , Ahuic, Ahulane, Aiauh, Aipaloovik , Ajbit, Ajilee , Ajtzak, Akbaalia , Akba-atatdia , Akhlut , Akhushtal, Akna , Akycha, Alaghom Naom Tzentel, Albino Spirit animals , Alektca , Alignak, Allanque , Allowat Sakima , Alom, Alowatsakima , Amaguq , Amala , Amimitl, Amitolane, Amotken , Andaokut , Andiciopec , Anerneq , Anetlacualtiliztli, Angalkuq , Angpetu Wi, Anguta, Angwusnasomtaka , Ani Hyuntikwalaski , Animal spirits , Aningan, Aniwye , Anog Ite , Anpao, Apanuugak , Apicilnic , Apikunni , Apotamkin , Apoyan Tachi , Apozanolotl, Apu Punchau, Aqalax , Arendiwane , Arnakua’gsak , Asdiwal , Asgaya Gigagei, Asiaq , Asin , Asintmah, Atacokai , Atahensic, Aticpac Calqui Cihuatl, Atira, Atisokan , Atius Tirawa , Atl, Atlacamani, Atlacoya, Atlatonin, Atlaua, Atshen , Auilix, Aulanerk , Aumanil , Aunggaak , Aunt Nancy , Awaeh Yegendji , Awakkule , Awitelin Tsta , Awonawilona, Ayauhteotl, Azeban, Baaxpee , Bacabs, Backlum Chaam, Bagucks , Bakbakwalanooksiwae , Balam, Baldhead , Basamacha , Basket Woman , Bead Spitter , Bear , Bear Medicine Woman , Bear Woman , Beaver , Beaver Doctor , Big Heads, Big Man Eater , Big Tail , Big Twisted Flute , Bikeh hozho, Bitol, Black Hactcin , Black Tamanous , Blind Boy , Blind Man , Blood Clot Boy , Bloody Hand , Blue-Jay , Bmola , Bolontiku, Breathmaker, Buffalo , Buluc Chabtan, Burnt Belly , Burnt Face , Butterfly , Cabaguil, Cacoch, Cajolom, Cakulha, Camaxtli, Camozotz, Cannibal Grandmother , Cannibal Woman , Canotila , Capa , Caprakan, Ca-the-a, Cauac, Centeotl, Centzonuitznaua, Cetan , Chac Uayab Xoc, Chac, Chahnameed , Chakwaina Okya, Chalchihuitlicue, Chalchiuhtlatonal, Chalchiutotolin, Chalmecacihuilt, Chalmecatl, Chamer, Changing Bear Woman , Changing Woman , Chantico, Chaob, Charred Body , Chepi , Chibiabos , Chibirias, Chiccan, Chicomecoatl, Chicomexochtli, Chiconahui, Chiconahuiehecatl, Chie, Child-Born-in-Jug , Chirakan, Chulyen , Cihuacoatl, Cin-an-ev , Cinteotl, Cipactli, Cirap� , Cit Chac Coh, Cit-Bolon-Tum, Citlalatonac, Citlalicue, Ciucoatl, Ciuteoteo, Cizin, Cliff ogre , Coatlicue, Cochimetl, Cocijo, Colel Cab, Colop U Uichkin, Copil, Coyolxauhqui, Coyopa, Coyote , Cripple Boy , Crow , Crow Woman , Cum hau, Cunawabi , Dagwanoenyent , Dahdahwat , Daldal , Deohako, Dhol , Diyin dine , Djien , Djigonasee , Dohkwibuhch , Dzalarhons , Dzalarhons, Eagentci , Eagle , Earth Shaman , Eeyeekalduk , Ehecatl, Ehlaumel , Eithinoha , Ekchuah, Enumclaw , Eototo, Esaugetuh Emissee , Esceheman, Eschetewuarha, Estanatlehi , Estasanatlehi , Estsanatlehi, Evaki, Evening Star, Ewah , Ewauna, Face , Faces of the Forests , False Faces , Famine , Fastachee , Fire Dogs , First Creator , First Man and First Woman, First Scolder , Flint Man , Flood , Flower Woman , Foot Stuck Child , Ga’an, Ga-gaah , Gahe, Galokwudzuwis , Gaoh, Gawaunduk, Geezhigo-Quae, Gendenwitha, Genetaska, Ghanan, Gitche Manitou, Glispa, Glooskap , Gluscabi , Gluskab , Gluskap, Godasiyo, Gohone , Great Seahouse, Greenmantle , Gucumatz, Gukumatz, Gunnodoyak, Gyhldeptis, Ha Wen Neyu , Hacauitz , Hacha’kyum, Hagondes , Hahgwehdiyu , Hamatsa , Hamedicu, Hanghepi Wi, Hantceiitehi , Haokah , Hastseoltoi, Hastshehogan , He’mask.as , Hen, Heyoka , Hiawatha , Hino, Hisakitaimisi, Hokhokw , Hotoru, Huehuecoyotl, Huehueteotl, Huitaca , Huitzilopochtli, Huixtocihuatl, Hummingbird, Hun hunahpu, Hun Pic Tok, Hunab Ku, Hunahpu Utiu, Hunahpu, Hunahpu-Gutch, Hunhau, Hurakan, Iatiku And Nautsiti, Ich-kanava , Ictinike , Idliragijenget , Idlirvirisong, Igaluk , Ignirtoq , Ikanam , Iktomi , Ilamatecuhtli, Illapa, Ilyap’a, i’noGo tied , Inti, Inua , Ioskeha , Ipalnemohuani, Isakakate, Ishigaq , Isitoq , Issitoq , Ite , Itzamn, Itzananohk`u, Itzlacoliuhque, Itzli, Itzpapalotl, Ix Chebel Yax, Ixbalanque, Ixchel, Ixchup, Ixmucane, Ixpiyacoc, Ixtab, Ixtlilton, Ixtubtin, Ixzaluoh, Iya , Iyatiku , Iztaccihuatl, Iztacmixcohuatl, Jaguar Night, Jaguar Quitze, Jogah , Kaakwha , Kabun , Kabun , Kachinas, Kadlu , Ka-Ha-Si , Ka-Ha-Si , Kaik , Kaiti , Kan, Kana’ti and Selu , Kanati, Kan-u-Uayeyab, Kan-xib-yui, Kapoonis , Katsinas, Keelut , Ketchimanetowa, Ketq Skwaye, Kianto, Kigatilik , Kilya, K’in, Kinich Ahau, Kinich Kakmo, Kishelemukong , Kisin, Kitcki Manitou, Kmukamch , Kokopelli , Ko’lok , Kukulcan, Kushapatshikan , Kutni , Kutya’I , Kwakwakalanooksiwae , Kwatee , Kwekwaxa’we , Kwikumat , Kyoi , Lagua , Land Otter People , Lawalawa , Logobola , Loha, Lone Man , Long Nose , Loon , Loon Medicine , Loon Woman , Loo-wit, Macaw Woman, Macuilxochitl, Maho Peneta, Mahucutah, Makenaima , Malesk , Malina , Malinalxochi, Malsum, Malsumis , Mam, Mama Cocha, Man in moon , Manabozho , Manetuwak , Mani’to, Manitou , Mannegishi , Manu, Masaya, Masewi , Master of Life , Master Of Winds, Matshishkapeu , Mavutsinim , Mayahuel, Medeoulin , Mekala , Menahka, Meteinuwak , Metztli, Mexitl, Michabo, Mictecacihuatl, Mictlan, Mictlantecuhtli, Mikchich , Mikumwesu , Mitnal, Mixcoatl, Mongwi Kachinum , Morning Star, Motho and Mungo , Mulac, Muut , Muyingwa , Nacon, Nagenatzani, Nagi Tanka , Nagual, Nahual, Nakaw, Nanabojo, Nanabozho , Nanabush, Nanahuatzin, Nanautzin, Nanih Waiya, Nankil’slas , Nanook , Naum, Negafook , Nerrivik , Nesaru, Nianque , Nishanu , Nohochacyum, Nokomis, Nootaikok , North Star, Nujalik , Nukatem , Nunne Chaha , Ocasta, Ockabewis, Odzihozo , Ohtas , Oklatabashih, Old Man , Olelbis, Omacatl, Omecihuatl, Ometecuhtli, Onatha , One Tail of Clear Hair , Oonawieh Unggi , Opochtli, Oshadagea, Owl Woman , Pah , Pah, Paiowa, Pakrokitat , Pana , Patecatl, Pautiwa, Paynal, Pemtemweha , Piasa , Pikvhahirak , Pinga , Pomola , Pot-tilter , Prairie Falcon , Ptehehincalasanwin , Pukkeenegak , Qaholom, Qakma, Qiqirn , Quaoar , Quetzalcoatl, Qumu , Quootis-hooi, Rabbit, Ragno, Raven, Raw Gums , Rukko, Sagamores , Sagapgia , Sanopi , Saynday , Sedna, Selu, Shakuru, Sharkura, Shilup Chito Osh, Shrimp house, Sila , Sint Holo , Sio humis, Sisiutl , Skan , Snallygaster , Sosondowah , South Star, Spider Woman , Sta-au , Stonecoats , Sun, Sungrey , Ta Tanka , Tabaldak , Taime , Taiowa , Talocan, Tans , Taqwus , Tarhuhyiawahku, Tarquiup Inua , Tate , Tawa, Tawiscara, Ta’xet , Tcisaki , Tecciztecatl, Tekkeitserktock, Tekkeitsertok , Telmekic , Teoyaomqui, Tepeu, Tepeyollotl, Teteoinnan, Tezcatlipoca, Thobadestchin, Thoume’, Thunder , Thunder Bird , Tieholtsodi, Tihtipihin , Tirawa , Tirawa Atius, Tlacolotl, Tlahuixcalpantecuhtli, Tlaloc, Tlaltecuhtli, Tlauixcalpantecuhtli, Tlazolteotl, Tohil, Tokpela , Tonantzin , Tonatiuh, To’nenile, Tonenili , Tootega , Torngasak, Torngasoak , Trickster/Transformer , True jaguar, Tsentsa, Tsichtinako, Tsohanoai Tsonoqwa , Tsul ‘Kalu , Tulugaak , Tumas , Tunkan ingan, Turquoise Boy , Twin Thunder Boys, Txamsem , Tzakol, Tzitzimime, Uazzale , Uchtsiti, Ud , Uentshukumishiteu , Ueuecoyotl, Ugly Way , Ugni , Uhepono , Uitzilopochtli, Ukat , Underwater Panthers , Unhcegila , Unipkaat , Unk, Unktomi , Untunktahe , Urcaguary, Utea , Uwashil , Vassagijik , Voltan, Wabosso , Wabun , Wachabe, Wah-Kah-Nee, Wakan , Wakanda , Wakan-Tanka, Wakinyan , Wan niomi , Wanagi , Wananikwe , Watavinewa , Water babies , Waukheon , We-gyet , Wemicus , Wendigo , Wentshukumishiteu , White Buffalo Woman, Whope , Wi , Wicahmunga , Wihmunga , Windigo, Winonah, Wisagatcak , Wisagatcak, Wishpoosh , Wiyot , Wovoka , Wuya , Xaman Ek, Xelas , Xibalba, Xilonen, Xipe Totec, Xiuhcoatl, Xiuhtecuhtli, Xiuhtecutli, Xmucane, Xochipili , Xochiquetzal, Xocotl, Xolotl, Xpiyacoc, Xpuch And Xtah, Yacatecuhtli, Yaluk, Yanauluha , Ya-o-gah , Yeba Ka, Yebaad, Yehl , Yeitso, Yiacatecuhtli, Yolkai Estsan, Yoskeha , Yum Kaax, Yuwipi , Zaramama, Zipaltonal, Zotz,

    Norse, 111 Deities, Giants and Monsters:
    Aegir, Aesir, Alfrigg, Audumbla, Aurgelmir, Balder, Berchta, Bergelmir, Bor, Bragi, Brisings, Buri, Etin, Fenris, Forseti, Frey, Freyja, Frigga, Gefion, Gerda, Gode, Gymir, Harke, Heimdall, Hel, Hermod, Hodur, Holda, Holle, Honir, Hymir, Idun, Jormungandr, Ljolsalfs, Loki, Magni, Mimir, Mistarblindi, Muspel, Nanna, Nanni, Nerthus, Njord, Norns, Odin, Perchta, Ran, Rig, Segyn, Sif, Skadi, Skirnir, Skuld, Sleipnir, Surt, Svadilfari, tanngniotr, tanngrisnr, Thiassi, Thor, Thrud, Thrudgelmir, Thrym, Thurs, Tyr, Uller, Urd, Vali, Vali, Valkyries, Vanir, Ve, Verdandi, Vidar, Wode, Ymir

    Pacific islands: 99 Deities, Demigods and Immortal Monsters:

    Abeguwo, Abere, Adaro, Afekan, Ai Tupua’i, ‘Aiaru, Ala Muki, Alalahe, Alii Menehune, Aluluei, Aruaka, Asin, Atanea, Audjal, Aumakua, Babamik, Bakoa, Barong, Batara Kala, Buring Une, Darago, Dayang-Raca, De Ai, Dogai, Enda Semangko, Faumea, Giriputri, Goga, Haumea, Hiiaka’, Hina, Hine, Hoa-Tapu, ‘Imoa, Io, Kanaloa, Kanaloa, Kane, Kapo, Kava, Konori, Ku, Kuhuluhulumanu, Kuklikimoku, Kukoae, Ku’ula, Laka, Laulaati, Lono, Mahiuki, MakeMake, Marruni, Maru, Maui, Melu, Menehune, Moeuhane, MOO-LAU, Ndauthina, Ne Te-reere, Nevinbimbaau, Ngendei, Nobu, Oro, Ove, Paka’a, Papa, Pele, Quat, Rangi, Rati, Rati-mbati-ndua, Ratu-Mai-Mbula, Rua, Ruahatu, Saning Sri, Ta’aroa, Taaroa, Tamakaia, Tane, Tanemahuta, Tangaroa, Tawhaki, Tiki, Tinirau, Tu, Tuli, Turi-a-faumea, Uira, Ukupanipo, Ulupoka, Umboko Indra, Vanuatu, Wahini-Hal, Walutahanga, Wari-Ma-Te-Takere, Whaitiri, Whatu, Wigan,

    South American: 53 Deities, Demigods, Beings of Divine Substance:

    Abaangui, Aclla, Akewa, Asima Si, Atoja, Auchimalgen, Axomama, Bachu, Beru, Bochica, Boiuna, Calounger, Catequil, Cavillaca, Ceiuci, Chasca, Chie, Cocomama, Gaumansuri, Huitaca, Iae, Ilyap’a, Ina, Inti, Ituana, Jamaina , Jandira, Jarina, Jubbu-jang-sangne, Ka-ata-killa, Kilya, Kuat, Kun, Luandinha, Lupi, Mama Allpa, Mama Quilla, Mamacocha, Manco Capac, Maret-Jikky, Maretkhmakniam, Mariana, Oshossi, Pachamac, Pachamama, Perimb, Rainha Barba, Si, Supai, Toptine, Viracocha, Yemanja (Imanje), Zume Topana

    But I do believe in just one God, with no name in this list. Therefore it is inaccurate to call me a theist. Come on guys! I just want to be pragmatic and believe in one God. Just one God! And that makes me religious?

    God I hate idealogues.

  17. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    4. November 2015 at 17:34

    E. Harding. Argentina had a neoliberal period in the 1990s, then reverted to statism after the NGDP shock of 1998-2002.

    Good point about Russia. I believe that a lot of the ups and downs in their life expectancy has to do with shifting alcohol policies. Is that right?

  18. Gravatar of E. Harding E. Harding
    4. November 2015 at 18:13

    “Good point about Russia. I believe that a lot of the ups and downs in their life expectancy has to do with shifting alcohol policies. Is that right?”

    -Don’t know much about that, though the relative price of alcohol has certainly strongly increased in Russia since the 1990s, alcohol excise taxes have been hiked, and consumption of illegally produced alcohol is down. The boost in life expectancy has also coincided with a collapse in alcohol poisonings since a decade ago.
    Also, foreign-made lower-concentration alcohol is both more available and cheaper.

  19. Gravatar of E. Harding E. Harding
    4. November 2015 at 18:23

    I’m surprised by the vast growth of the gap between Estonian and Russian life expectancy between 1997 and 2005.

  20. Gravatar of mbka mbka
    4. November 2015 at 18:50

    Scott, re: your 5.) , are you aware of the World Bank’s 2005 report “Where is the Wealth of Nations?”, with follow-up in 2013?

    It’s a similar approach, though instead of “country IQ” as an economic driver, they look at the intangibles that drive wealth and GDP. The way they do that is by calculating actual capital of an economy (natural resources, produced assets etc) and comparing it with economic output, assuming a discount rate. The difference between expected output and actual output then allows to estimate the intangibles that contribute to growth, besides the “real” assets.

    The shocker in this approach is that it shows just how much output differences between countries can only be explained by massively different intangibles (human capital, cultural norms, institutions, legal systems etc).

    Here are some numbers. In 2000 US$, the capital contributions of these 3 countries were as follows per capita:
    country: natural, produced, intangible, total capital
    Mexico: 19k$, 34k$, 62k$
    Switzerland: 6k$, 100k$, 540k$
    US: 15k$, 80k$, 418k$

    The weakness of the approach IMO is that the intangibles are residuals combined with assumed discount rates and therefore actual numbers are error prone. But the orders of magnitude observed here are still an eye opener.

  21. Gravatar of Ray Lopez Ray Lopez
    4. November 2015 at 19:07

    I note a new Sumner tactic: post a series of random thoughts and have so many of them that nobody knows what to respond to. Even poor MF did a data dump of gods (OT, I had no idea there were so many Greek gods besides myself).

    It would take pages of pixels to rebut Sumner, so I’ll just cherry pick one. Sumner likes Erdmann (“He’s done a long series of posts on real estate, as well as related issues such as inequality”), a man who tries, Don Quixote style, to argue there was no US or worldwide housing bubble. That’s right, akin to Graeber and the Dutch Tulip Mania bubble, where he argued there was no tulip bubble, Erdmann tilts at windmills and argues, contrary to common sense, there was no bubble. Unbelievable, like this entire site. No wonder wonderkid physicist-economst Jason Smith has such an easy time ripping Sumner.

  22. Gravatar of Ray Lopez Ray Lopez
    4. November 2015 at 19:10

    One more thing: about BTC (bitcoin), check out the price here, long term (select ‘All’) and then see how Sumner is being too enthusiastic about a temporary bitcoin price surge. It’s got nothing to do with fundamentals, but probably some insiders (who control most of the supply of BTC) are buying.


    Sumner must be bipolar, his ups and downs are so noticeable.

  23. Gravatar of Kevin Erdmann Kevin Erdmann
    4. November 2015 at 19:15

    Thank you, Scott.

  24. Gravatar of benjamin cole benjamin cole
    5. November 2015 at 05:52

    Dan W- Not sure what you mean. Open borders are not statist. I believe in legal immigration to the United States, at probably higher levels than we have now.

    It is tough to be a libertarian when hundred percent of the time. For example, ask Scott Sumner how he feels about the destruction of Pennsylvania Station in New York City.

  25. Gravatar of Carl Carl
    5. November 2015 at 06:04

    Maybe it is implicit in the Murphy and Smith findings, but does the following hold: that long periods of stable NGDP lead to an increase in economic freedom.
    And is there any correlation between drops in NGDP and prior periods of fast growth in NGDP. The authors mention that Hitler came to power during a deflationary period, but that deflationary period followed a period of hyperinflation. (I don’t think the same is true of the US in the 30s, but I don’t know whether there is, in general, a correlation.)

  26. Gravatar of TallDave TallDave
    5. November 2015 at 06:49

    2,3. Erdmann and Stiglitz represent some of the most underrated and overrated thinking in ecomomics.

    5,6. Increases in societal IQ and more importantly general mental competence (the ability to apply reason behaviorally), assisted by AI, will drive fundamental changes as more people begin to understand why coercionism fails, voluntarism succeeds, and morally correct behavior is self-rewarding. John C Wright’s far-future The Golden Age trilogy is a wonderful vision of how such societies might be reordered.

    7. The GOP remains incredibly, suicidally awful on monetary policy. It’s like they have absolutely no familiarity with 8 at all.

    8. And don’t forget China’s silver standard deflation, driven by a corrupt US policy to reward politically connected silver mining interests, which failure helped usher in Maoism.

  27. Gravatar of collin collin
    5. November 2015 at 07:14

    1) Long term if high national IQ is the most important aspect to a functional society, then it is no surprise Singapore is the most functional society. So the smartest country is making distinct decisions not have large families, what does that do the Developed World Demographic Bust? (I do wonder since rich families can afford more than 2 children, how much is that accelerating the national IQ?)

    2) I am not that surprised the finding that life expectancy of High School educated white males dropped from 1999 – 2013 and it is converging with the minorities. (no I don’t see any political cuase here.) That was the first generation of High School graduates (1965 – 1982 graduating) that did not have distinct advantage discrimination in the work force over minorities and women. Additionally, I think that group of high school graduates were hardest hit of the great outsourcing to China after 1998. Unfortunately, there is a lot society costs to people taking significant wage decreases.

  28. Gravatar of Derivs Derivs
    5. November 2015 at 07:20

    “Asset prices are a random walk, and bubble theories add nothing useful to that fact.”

    Random walk has been officially declared a FACT?? I can accept EMH @ 95+% but pure random walk.. nope! Good place to start to model from, but nonetheless it ain’t right.

  29. Gravatar of Patrick R. Sullivan Patrick R. Sullivan
    5. November 2015 at 07:25

    ‘…which failure helped usher in Maoism.’

    Not nearly as much as the assistance that Mao got from American diplomats like John Stewart Service, John Carter Vincent, Owen Lattimore and others.

    When Nixon opened negotiations with China, Chou En Lai publicly (in the NY Times) invited those ‘China Hands’ to come back for a visit. John Stewart Service accepted and beat Nixon to China in 1971.


    ‘During dinner, which included the proletarian hors d’ouevre of prawns, green beans, cold duck and chicken, and delicious morsels of fish, the talk turned to China Hands Owen Lattimore, John Carter Vincent, John … Stewart Service and John K. Fairbank. About whom, Chou En Lai said, “Take good wishes to them…If they want to visit China we will welcome them.” Which invitation, when John Carter Vincent was made aware of it, thrilled him, according to ‘China Scapegoat: The Diplomatic Ordeal of John Carter Vincent’ [by Gary May].’

  30. Gravatar of Smith Smith
    5. November 2015 at 08:30

    “Maybe it is implicit in the Murphy and Smith findings, but does the following hold: that long periods of stable NGDP lead to an increase in economic freedom.
    And is there any correlation between drops in NGDP and prior periods of fast growth in NGDP. The authors mention that Hitler came to power during a deflationary period, but that deflationary period followed a period of hyperinflation. (I don’t think the same is true of the US in the 30s, but I don’t know whether there is, in general, a correlation.)”

    This is a great question, and I will bring it up with Ryan. One issue is that the EFW Index includes monetary stability as an aspect of economic freedom. We could however exclude that category and attempt to measure the effect on the other categories.

    Thanks for the comment!

  31. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    5. November 2015 at 10:55

    mbka, Interesting, but what do the numbers you report represent? You give 4 variables and only 3 numbers.

    Carl, Actually, the hyperinflation ended 6 years before the Depression began, As late as 1929 the Nazis were a small party. Hyperinflation probably was not a key factor in their rise.

    Collin, Actually, the graph provided says the opposite–they are diverging. And your theory fails to account for the rapidly improving health of Hispanics.

  32. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    5. November 2015 at 11:13

    @Scott Sumner
    Well let’s assume the findings by Deaton do really matter and are not just glitches and noise.

    Let’s also assume that one major explanation is better than a hundred small ones. Let’s also assume that all graphs are correct. Let’s also assume that the findings are true for all US states (we dont know that yet). Let’s also assume there’s no major change (in the trend) when you split the morality rates in the other countries by race (we dont know that yet).

    Then we would look for one explanation that explains the gap between the US white males and all other countries. And also the gap between US white males and US Hispanic males. At this point it is important to note, that I don’t think the overall numbers itself are that important. It is the trend that is interesting.

    So what could this explanation be? To answer that question a split into US states and a split by race regarding the other countries would be very helpful.

    If white males in most Western countries are affected then the explanation could be the overall “decline” of white men (whatever that means). Maybe especially economically. Also: Discrimination against white men is basically legal in most Western countries now. Oftentimes this discrimination is not only a can-do but a must-do. It’s required by law.

    Now to the other case: If we see the trend only in the US then my money is still on the military. There are around 2.5 million Iraq and Afghanistan veterans alone. I assume there is at least another million from the Gulf War. A lot of them must be in the reviewed group of middle-aged whites.

    Now let’s assume I’m wrong and those veterans are not a relevant fraction but only a very tiny fraction (define tiny). My theory could still be true because even tiny fractions can have a huge impact. And again: Define huge. Are the gaps in the morality rates really that huge? So *huge* that we can be sure that they aren’t explained by a *tiny* fraction?

    So how would Hispanics and Blacks fit into the veteran theory? I might explain this some other time if anyone is interested.

    Your *comment* makes the thread really hard to read. I wish it would be deleted. And by the way: You are basically an atheist – just go one god further.

  33. Gravatar of Jared Jared
    5. November 2015 at 11:23

    Scott, you said:

    “Then he [Stiglitz] doesn’t understand macro101. A highly expansionary monetary policy will boost NGDP, unless at the zero bound.”

    BUT HE’S TALKING ABOUT THE ZERO BOUND! C’mon, man, you really need to apply the principle of charity to your interlocutors.

    Fair point about TIPs, though. So the market wasn’t expecting future inflation (but all my idiot coworkers were!). But doesn’t this just demonstrate how difficult it is to raise inflation expectations through monetary policy at the zero bound? We had a 500% increase in the MB, a majority of commentators squawking about pending hyperinflation, and most every Joe-schmoe on the street believing them… but still nothing! If it wasn’t for 25 lousy basis points of IOR it would’ve worked, right? Or if it wasn’t for that one Regional Bank President hawk pressuring the BOG to raise rates at the end of the year, it would’ve worked, right? Or… on to the next excuse. It just seems that too many things need to be aligned perfectly, and one little thing wrong can cause monetary policy impotence. Ah, that’s why we need a NGDPLT, right? A new target will circumvent all confusion and convince people to spend when they’re already worried about their debt levels, their jobs, and a lack of customers. I’m still skeptical, but it’s worth a try.

  34. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    5. November 2015 at 11:46

    I bet you can easily raise inflation by doing what Stiglitz said: Raise the income of the average Joe. How can you do that? By playing Helicopter Ben and handing out money directly to the average Joe. This will bring inflation in now time, right?

    I think Mr. Sumner explained in lengthy articles (for example at EconLog) why this kind of policy is not the best idea. But I think Stiglitz still *wins*. He wins not because he is right but because his style is so catchy and so simple. Just one phrase to rule them all: “The real problem is people don’t have income, and when they don’t have income they don’t spend.”

    I guess to beat Stiglitz you need to find similar catchy phrases. I think Milton Friedman mastered this art even more.

    Or as another *guy* put it: All propaganda has to be popular and has to accommodate itself to the comprehension of the least intelligent of those whom it seeks to reach.

  35. Gravatar of Steve Steve
    5. November 2015 at 11:56

    Death by prescription drug and heroin has been skyrocketing.


    There’s huge co-morbidity. Over half of heroin addicts start out on prescription drugs, and they also have 3x marijuana abuse and 2x alcohol abuse vs general population.

    Suicide rates are also quite high:

    White males accounted for 70% of all suicides in 2013.” – A statistic you will never hear on MSM, where white males are claimed to have ‘privilege’ and are also claimed to be undercharged for health insurance.

    Additionally, the co-morbidity is likely quite high between heart disease and alcohol/marijuana/heroin/prescription drug addiction, especially in the 45-54 age group.

    It will be interesting to see what political theory Krugman is able to invent to explain this. His title “HEARTLAND” of darkness is a hint. Given Krugman’s lack of intellectual curiosity, I doubt he will try to break out deaths by underlying cause.

  36. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    5. November 2015 at 12:43

    Christian, No, the 1991 war was very small–lasted just 4 days, few casualties, and the more recent Iraq/Afghan veterans are too young—so it won’t work. Plus lots of Hispanics serve in the military.

    Jared, You said:


    That’s just wrong, he’s specifically talking about a situation with no zero bound. Your other comments have been addressed so many times here I won’t even bother anymore–just read my older posts–all your objections are answered. Again, he’s not talking about the zero bound, otherwise he’d agree with Krugman.

  37. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    5. November 2015 at 13:32

    “No, the 1991 war was very small-lasted just 4 days”
    The Gulf War lasted 6 months, 3 weeks and 5 days according to wikipedia. 700.000 US soldiers have been deployed. Whole new syndromes have been created after this war. For example: 250.000 of the 700.000 deployed soldiers developed the Gulf War syndrome.

    “Iraq/Afghan veterans are too young”

    75% of the active duty force in the US army are 22-40 years old. The war in Afghanistan started in 2001, Iraq in 2003. So you are right but at least some of them might have been middle-aged during the study.

    Let’s not forget about Vietnam. There are around 8 million Vietnam war veterans. Of those 8 million around 2.6 million are reported to have served directly in the country. Let’s say you have been 20 years old in 1970-1975 then you are 45 in 1995-2000. The mortality of the middle-aged whites seems to raise around 1998. That’s pretty much the year the Vietnam veterans must kick in in relevant numbers, isn’t it?

    “Plus lots of Hispanics serve in the military.”
    They do. But not 10-25 years ago. Also: Hispanics prefer the civilian labor force.


  38. Gravatar of Christian List Christian List
    5. November 2015 at 13:40

    I would like to see the graph of Japanese males aged 45-54. Japan has really high suicide rates but (nearly) no deployed soldiers. So the question would be: Is the trend in Japan like the US trend or is it similar to the other countries?

  39. Gravatar of TallDave TallDave
    5. November 2015 at 14:57

    Patrick R. Sullivan — You should read some of the firsthand accounts of the “aid” given to the Nationalists. They literally dumped scrapheaps and moldy food rations on the beach and then went home and quoted the aid to the US public at original list prices. They repeatedly forced the Nationalists into cease-fires that were hugely advantageous to the Communists. Mind-boggling.

  40. Gravatar of mbka mbka
    5. November 2015 at 22:03


    sorry, error in the listing. Here are the complete numbers for US$/capita estimated wealth in 2000:

    natural, produced, intangible, total capital
    Mexico: 8.5k$, 19k$, 34k$, 62k$
    Switzerland: 6k$, 100k$, 540k$, 646k$
    US: 15k$, 80k$, 418k$,513k$

    The take away for me is that while rich countries have a decent amount of accumulated capital (Piketty would like that) but their current productivity can only be explained by a massive amount of intangible capital. This is what sets the rich apart from the poor.

  41. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    6. November 2015 at 18:32

    Christian, You are wrong about just about everything. The 1991 war lasted about 4 days, except the long air war which has no bearing on your argument. 148 US soldiers died in combat, vs. 400,000 US soldiers in WW2. There’s no way the 4 day 1991 war could scar a generation.

    Vietnam vets are too old in 2013, they are like 60 years old. Their age in 1998 has no bearing on your argument, as you are trying to explain why the health of this age group deteriorated over time. In fact it cuts the wrong way, your model predicts health in that cohort should have improved by 2013, as the Vietnam vets had left the age bracket. Take a deep breath and start over.

    mbka, Thanks, I agree.

  42. Gravatar of Vivian Darkbloom Vivian Darkbloom
    6. November 2015 at 23:16

    The effect of the Iraq 1993 war (there was no 1991 war) may be greater than suggested by the number of US soldiers killed or the relatively short duration of the war. There were a lot of Iraqi casualties, both military and civilian, and witnessing that (and knowing that you may have caused it) isn’t a pleasant experience. It’s little comfort to know that that kid with her leg blown off is not one of “our guys”. And, simply being in a war with the possibility of getting killed or wounded is more stressful than sitting behind a desk (I was a reservist Air Force Judge Advocate sitting behind a desk in Europe war during that war, the invasion part of which lasted not 4 days, but 21 days). The stress for those on the ground lasted much longer than that. One early Pentagon study documented the issues confronted by returning Iraq War I veterans:


    And, this isn’t simply limited to seeing people blown to bits. Deployments to war zones without family are hard on marriages and other relationships. There’s a lot more to this than the number of US soldiers killed.

    While I tend to think that such studies often overstate the issue, I don’t doubt that the issues faced by veterans of Vietnam, and the Iraq wars contributed somewhat to the rise in the white “mid-age” deaths as reported in the study. The Vietnam vets may have had an effect on the front end and the vets of the Iraqi wars on the back end. Of course, it hardly explains it all. But, as always, one should not be looking for just one answer, but most folks seem to want to always suggest there is one.

  43. Gravatar of ssumner ssumner
    7. November 2015 at 13:27

    Vivian, There are so many mistakes I hardly no where to begin. The Iraq war was in 1991 not 1993. If you were there as you claim, your memory is lousy. And the land invasion lasted 100 hours, that’s 4 days.

    The Vietnam War was certainly 100 times more traumatic (and several 100 times more fatalities), but unfortunately for your theory it would cause exactly the opposite effect from what we found in the data. To the extent to which it hurt the health of middle age people, the health data should have improved MORE dramatically between 1998 and 2013, not less dramatically. That’s because Vietnam vets would have aged out of that group between 1998 and 2013. So even if you are right about Vietnam, it completely undercuts your argument.

    The generation of men in that age group is vast, tens of millions. A tiny, tiny handful saw Iraqis being blown up. Of that number a small number would have been so traumatized it affected them decades later. If you were right there would have been vastly more health problems after bigger wars.

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