163 Instrumentation for Test and Measurement
Some organizations are wasting time and money using archaic, unreliable instrumentation. They are using outdated technologies to monitor today’s products and processes. Course 163 offers understanding of modern instrumentation and systems, with which data can be acquired with a speed, volume and accuracy unknown in the past.
For Whom Intended Engineers, aides and technicians. Some background in electronics is helpful but is not essential. The course will be tailored to student objectives.
Objectives To provide a basic understanding of measurement systems. To alert the students to the many varieties of transducers available, their operating principles, strengths and weaknesses. To give students enough applications information that they can select optimum transducer, amplifier, recording and readout devices to assemble a system for routine measurements of environmental and dynamic phenomena.
Brief Course Description Mainly lectures, supported by slides, transparencies, videotapes and sample hardware. Students are expected to participate in classroom discussions and in a small group case study exercise, as well as read text materials and class notes.
Course 163 presents basic information on selection, application, calibration and usage of modern measurement systems to measure electrical, environmental and dynamic phenomena. The course emphasizes a nonmathematical approach to understanding concepts and mechanisms. A variety of measurands and transducer types is covered, as well as signal conditioning, recording and analysis.
Participants are encouraged to bring a specific measurement problem to class for use as a case study. The instructor will introduce one or more student problems (and/or a preselected case) on the first day. Each day’s course material will further develop the case study. A solution will be given at the end.
Diploma Programs This course is required for TTi’s Environmental Engineering Specialist (EES), Dynamic Test Specialist (DTS) and Climatic Test Specialist (CTS) Diploma Programs. It may be used as an optional course in any other TTi Specialist Diploma Program.
Prerequisites There are no definite prerequisites, but participation in TTi’s course Electronics for NonElectronic Engineers or the equivalent would be helpful.
Text Each student will receive 180 days access to the online electronic course workbook. Renewals and printed textbooks are available for an additional fee.
Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs Class hours/days for onsite courses can vary from 1435 hours over 25 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.
INTERNET COMPLETE COURSE 163 features almost 15 hours of video as well as more indepth reading material. All chapters of course 163 are also available as OnDemand Internet Short Topics. See the course outline below for details.
Click for a printable course outline (pdf).
Course Outline
Chapter 1.1  Review of Electrical Fundamentals Part 1
 Electrostatic Field and Potentials/Electrical Charge
 Conductors and Insulators/Current
 Current/Resistance
 Voltage/Ohm’s Law
 EMFs in Series and Parallel
 Resistors
 Series Circuits
 Capacitors in DC Circuits
 Capacitance
 Capacitors in parallel
 Capacitors in Series
 Inductance
 Alternating Current
 Sine Wave
 Summary — Effective or RMS Value of Current and Power
 Sinusoidal Waveforms
 SDoF — Sinusoidal Relationships
 Reactance
 Impedance
 Frequency and Phase
 Phasors—Rectangular Coordinates
 The j Operator
 Polar Coordinates
 Inductive Reactance
 Capacitive Reactance
 Impedance in Series RLC AC Circuits
 Series Resonance
 Resonant Frequency
 Q of a Series Circuit
 Bandwidth of Series RLC Circuit
 Parallel Resonance
 Band Pass and Band Stop Filters
Chapter 1.2  Review of Electrical Fundamentals Part 2
 Types of Signals
 Complex Signals
 Square Wave Signals
 Complex Spectrum of a Periodic Time Function
 Transient Signals
 Complex (Pyroshock) Time History
 Random Signals
 Mutual Inductance
 Transformers
 Transformer Equivalent Circuit
 Transformer Turns Ratio
 Impedance Matching
 Electrical Power in AC Circuits
 Electrical Power and Energy
 Laboratory Practice—Safety
 Types of Grounds
 GroundsThree Wire Outlet
 Example of Incorrect Grounding Technique
Chapter 2  Decibels (dB), Logarithmic vs. Linear Scaling, Frequency Spectra, Octaves

Decibels

Power and Voltage Ratio

Application of dB Notation

dB Ratio Conversions

Adding Two Power Ratios in dB

Reference Levels for Decibel Notation

Logarithmic vs. Linear Scaling

Sound Perception

Frequency Spectra for Various Noise Sources

Diatonic Musical Scale

Octaves

Acoustic Analysis

1/3 Octave Bandwidth

Center Frequency
Chapter 3  Noise

Noise Signal, Gaussian Distribution

Detecting a Weak Signal

Noise Calculations

Noise Suppression for Sensor Signals

Noise Figure and Distortion

Electronic Noise Measurements

Phase Noise

Phase Noise Display

Phase Noise in Communications

The Noise Corner Frequency

External Noise Sources

Common Electrical Noise from External Sources

Types of Noise

Shot (or Schottky) Noise

Thermal (or Johnson) Noise

Thermal Noise, Example

Flicker (1/f) Noise

Burst Noise

Avalanche Noise

Noise Should be Viewed as a Vector
Chapter 4  Parameters of Linear Systems

Sensors and Systems

Components of an Instrumentation System

Frequency Response

Dynamic Range and Linearity

NonLinear Mechanical System

NonLinear Systems

InputOutput Characteristic Curve

Distortion of a Sine Wave

Typical Linearity Curve of an Instrument

Methods of Computing Linearity

Signal and Spectrum Before and After Clipping

Design/Performance Characteristics of Sensors

Effects of Inadequate Frequency Response

System response to a Rectangular Pulse

Lowpass, Highpass and Bandpass Networks

Phase Response

Response of a Linear Network to a Sine Wave
Chapter 5  Accuracy, Calibration and Error Assessment
 Simple Statistics of Measurement
 Random Data and the Gaussian Distribution
 Cumulative Distribution Functions
 Probability Density Functions
 Confidence Levels
 Types of Error
 Measurement Error
 Systematic Error
 Total System Error: a Function of Elemental Errors
 Error Assessment
 “System Accuracy” or “Calibration” Plot
 Temperature Error
 Transducer Error
 Areas of the Normal Curve
 t (Student) Distribution
 ChiSquare Distribution
 Table: ChiSquare Distribution
Chapter 6  Transducers

It starts with you and the sensor

The Ideal Transducer

Characteristics of an Ideal Transducer

Mechanisms in General

Environmental Effects

Temperature Measurements

Temperature Sensors

Thermoelectric Transducers

Thermocouples

Temperature Sensor Attributes

Temperature Sensors Advantages and Disadvantages

Strain Gauge

Displacement  Direct Measurement

Silicon Semiconductor Transducers

Accelerometer Sensing Element

Accelerometers


Frequency Response

Acceleration Response

Seismic Transducer

Vibration Transducers

Piezoelectric Accelerometers

Mounting Effects

Stress and Strain

Stress and Strain in a Beam

Torque

Pressure Transducers

Uses of Pressure Transducers

Pressure Sensors

Flow Meters

Velocity Sensing Module

Acoustic Waves

Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT)

Potentiometric Transducers
Chapter 7  Amplifiers and Signal Conditioners

Conditioning the Signal — Detection

DC Carrier Amplifier

Carrier Amplifier used with ACExcited Bridge

FM Carrier Amplifier

Lockin Amplifier

Capacitive Source Impedance

Resistive Source Impedance

The Bridge Circuit

Strain Gage Compensation

Equivalent Circuits, Bridge Transducers

Shunt Calibration

Voltage Insertion Calibration

RC HighPass Filter
Chapter 8  Avoiding Unwanted Signals

Unwanted Signals

Electrical Noise: High Signal Source Impedance

Low Signal Source Impedance

Source Shunting Effect

Parallel Conductors

Twisted Signal Conductors

MicrovoltLevel Signal Cables

Basic Amplifier Types

Typical Lowlevel Chopper Amplifier

Grounding and Shielding

Ground Loops

Eliminating Multiple Grounds

A Stable System Ground

Incorrect Grounding

Correct Grounding

Using the Amplifier Guard Shield

Common Mode Rejection

System Common Mode Rejection

Good Wiring Practice
Chapter 9  System Considerations

AmplifierSource Compatibility

Source Shunting Effect

Calibrated Zero Suppression

Amplifier Characteristics

Four Basic Types of Amplifiers

Typical Uses of Different Amplifier Types

Differential Amplifier

Amplifier Compatibility Summary

Piezo Voltage Amplifier

Impedance Transforming Amplifiers

Piezoelectric Transducers with Amplifier

Insufficient RC Time Constant

Charge Converters

Other Amplifier Characteristics
Chapter 10  Integrating, Differentiating and Filters
 Integrating Circuits
 Differentiating Circuits
 Input/Output Curves for Differentiating Circuits
 Filtering
 Acoustic Weighting
 Bandpass Filter
 Undamped (high Q) vs. Damped (low Q) Filters
 Selective Filtering
 Filter Characteristics
 Characteristics of Butterworth Filters
 Characteristics of Chebyshev Filters
 Characteristics of Bessel Filters
 RC and LR Circuits — Charge and Delay Curves
 Reaction of an RC Circuit to a Square Wave
 Amplifier Limiting
Chapter 11  Generating and Processing Digital Data

Working with Digital Signals

Waveform Reproduction as Function of Sample Rate

Analog — Digital and Digital — Analog Conversion

Quantization Error for a 3Bit Converter

Aperture Error

Aperture Time

Relationship Between Number of Bits and LSB
Chapter 12  Digital Analytical Techniques

Fourier Without Pain

Adding Sine Waves

Time and Frequency Domain

Discrete Fourier Analysis

Fast Fourier Transform

Phase of Frequency Domain Components

Lowest Frequency Resolvable by the FFT

Frequencies of all the Spectral Lines of the FFT

Dynamic Signal Analyzer

Spectrum Analyzers

Analog Frequency Analyzer

How Analyzer Presents a Single Sinusoid

Amplitude Error from Sweeping Too Fast

Parallel Filter Analyzer

Digital Frequency Analyzer

Quick Look vs. Detailed Analysis

Random Frequency Analysis

Statistical Precision of a Spectrum Analysis

Aliasing

Aliasing in the Frequency Domain

AntiAliasing Filters

Two Types of Aliasing Filters

Analog and Digital Filtering

Windowing

Effect of Windowing in the Time Domain

Leakage Reduction with Windowing

Transient Events

Response Window vs. Force Window

Comparison of Weighting Functions

Correlation

Auto and Crossspectra

Auto Correlation of Periodic Waveforms

Auto Correlation of a Sine Buried by Noise

Simulated Radar Cross Correlation

Coherence
Chapter 13  Oscilloscopes

Analog Oscilloscopes

Analog Oscilloscope Display Screen

Analog Display Subsystem

Analog Oscilloscope Measurements

Voltage

Time and Frequency

Phase

Pulse

Lissajous Patterns

Digital Oscilloscopes

Two Channel

Digital Oscilloscope Considerations
Chapter 14  Shock Measurement

Force Sensors

Load Cell Characteristics

Motion—Displacement Trackers

Characteristics of Motion Trackers

High Speed Photography

ElectroMagnetic Induction

Motion—Velocity Sensors

Motion—Acceleration

Seismic Transducers

Seismic Transducers Characteristics

Pendulum Calibration

Dynamic Calibration of Motion Sensors

Cabling

Accelerometer Attachment

Accelerometer QuickCheck Calibration

Accelerometer Loading Effect
Chapter 15  Digital Measurement and Recording Instruments

Digital Multimeters

Agilent 3458A

Agilent 34401A

Calibrator— Keithley Model 263

CurrenttoVoltage Converter—SR570

SR570 Front and Rear View

HP 33120A Function Generator

Portable 18Channel Data Acquisition Recorder

Portable Data Acquisition Recorder

Portable Hybrid Recorder

LabView Graphical Solutions
Chapter 16  Digital Multimeter Operation

Agilent 3458A Digital Multimeter

Power Requirements

General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB Bus)

Poweron Self Test, Ranging

Display, Function Keys

SelfTest

Remote Operation  GPIB

Display/Use GPIB Address

Calibration
Chapter 17  Making Measurements with a Digital Multimeter

Connection Configuration

Guarding

Measuring Voltage

DC Voltage

AC or AC+DC Voltage

Measuring DC Current

Measuring Resistance

2wire Ohms Measurements

4wire Ohms Measurements

A/D Converter

A/D Reference Frequency

A/D Integration Time

A/DPower Line Cycles

A/DSpecifying Resolution

Autozero Function

Offset Compensation
Chapter 18  Using a Function Generator/Arbitrary Waveform Generator

HP 33120A Function Generator

Waveforms Generated By A Function Generator

Signal Generation Process

Equivalent Circuit

Output Resistance and Load Resistance

Front Panel

Frequency, Amplitude Selection

Offset Voltage Selection, Duty Cycle

Modification of Standard Waveforms

BenchLink and Userdefined Arbitrary Waveforms

Specifications
Reference A  Glossary of Terms
Reference B  References, Bibliography, and Further Readings
Reference C  Typical Instrumentation Selection Check List
Appendix E  Analog Oscilloscope Controls
Summary and overview
Final presentation of “case study” project
Final Review
Award of certificates for successful completion
Click for a printable course outline (pdf).